Handbook for Journalists
"The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda announced the first-ever judgement on the crime of genocide by an international court. This is a landmark decision in the history of international criminal law. It brings to life, for the first time, the ideals of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of genocide, adopted 50 years ago.
This judgement is a testament to our collective determination to confront the heinous crime of genocide in a way we never have before. It is a defining example of the ability of United Nations to establish an effective international legal order and the rule of law.
Let us never again be accused of standing by while genocide and crimes against humanity are being committed.
I am sure that I speak for the entire international community when I express the hope that this judgement will contribute to the long-term process of national reconciliation in Rwanda. For there can be no healing without peace; there can be no peace without justice; and there can be no justice without respect for human rights and the rule of law."
Secretary General of the United Nations
2 September, 1998
|The Tribunal at a Glance|
|The Public Information Unit|
|The Spokesman of the Tribunal|
|Facilities for the Media|
|Internet site of the Tribunal|
I. The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR), was created by Security Council Resolution 955 of 8 November 1994. The Tribunal has jurisdiction to prosecute the persons responsible for Genocide and other serious violations of International Humanitarian Law committed in the territory of Rwanda, between 1 January 1994 and 31 December 1994, as well as Rwandan citizens suspected of such acts or violations in the territory of neighbouring states.
During that period, and in particular between the months of April and July 1994, some 800,000 Rwandans were killed, during a campaign of extermination directed against Tutsis and moderate Hutus.
By resolution 977 of 22 February 1995, the Security Council decided that the seat of the Tribunal would be located in Arusha, United Republic of Tanzania. The Tribunal consists of three Trial Chambers with three judges each and an Appeals Chamber of seven judges. The Appeals Chamber which adjudicates appeals from both the Rwanda Tribunal and the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, is based at The Hague, Netherlands.
The Judges adjudicate trials and motions. The Prosecutor investigates the crimes for which the Tribunal has jurisdiction, prepares indictments and, once these have been confirmed by a Judge, prosecutes the accused persons. The Registrar of the Tribunal is the representative of the Secretarial General and is responsible for the administration of the Tribunal, for providing the necessary support to the Chambers and the Prosecution and for legal and institutional relations between the Tribunal and the Host Country and other Member States of the United Nations. The Registrar is the Tribunalís channel of communication. The Tribunalís headquarters are in the Arusha International Conference Center (AICC).
The Members of the Tribunal
Judges in Order of Precedence
Country of Origin
|1.||Judge Charles Michael Dennis Byron||St. Kitts & Nevis||President ICTR
Member, Trial Chamber III
|2.||Judge Khalida Rachid Khan||Pakistan|| Vice-President ICTR
Presiding Judge, Trial Chamber III
|3.||Judge Fausto Pocar||Italy||Presiding Judge, Appeals Chamber|
|4.||Judge William Sekule||United Republic of Tanzania||Presiding Judge, Trial Chamber II|
|5.||Judge Erik Møse||Norway||Presiding Judge Trial Chamber I|
|6.||Judge Mohamed Shahabuddeen||Guyana||Member, Appeals Chamber|
|7.||Judge Mehmet Güney||Turkey||Member, Appeals Chamber|
|8.||Judge Liu Daqun||China||Member, Appeals Chamber|
|9.||Judge Andrésia Vaz||Senegal||Member, Appeals Chamber|
|10.||Judge Theodor Meron||United States||Member, Appeals Chamber|
|11.||Judge Wolfgang Schomburg||Germany||Member, Appeals Chamber|
|12.||Judge Arlette Ramaroson||Madagascar||Member, Trial Chamber II|
|13.||Judge Jai Ram Reddy||Fiji||Member, Trial Chamber I|
|14.||Judge Sergei Alekseevich Egorov||Russian Federation||Member, Trial Chamber I|
|15.||Judge Inés Mónica Weinberg de Roca||Argentina||Member, Trial Chamber III|
|16.||Judge Joseph Asoka Nihal De Silva||Sri Lanka||Member, Trial Chamber II|
Ad Litem Judges
|17.||Judge Solomy Balungi Bossa||Uganda||Member, Trial Chamber II|
|18.||Judge Lee Gacugia Muthoga||Kenya||Member, Trial Chamber II|
|19.||Judge Florence Rita Arrey||Cameroun||Member, Trial Chamber III|
|20.||Judge Emile Francis Short||Ghana||Member, Trial Chamber II|
|21.||Judge Taghrid Hikmet||Jordan||Member, Trial Chamber II|
|22.||Judge Seon Ki Park||Republic of Korea||Member, Trial Chamber II|
|23.||Judge Gberdao Gustave Kam||Burkina Faso||Member, Trial Chamber III|
|24.||Judge Robert Fremr||Czech Republic||Member, Trial Chamber III|
|25.||Judge Vagn Joensen||Denmark||Member, Trial Chamber III|
Mr Hassan Bubacar Jallow (The Gambia)
Mr. Bongani Majola (South Africa)
Mr. Adama Dieng (Senegal)
Mr. Everard O'Donnell (United Kingdom)
For further information on the organisation and work of the Tribunal, please consult the general brochure and specialised fact sheets published by the Public Information Unit.† These are also available on our web site at: www.ictr.org †
The Achievements of the ICTR
Since its establishment in Arusha (Headquarters) and Kigali in 1995, the ICTR has:
II. The Public Information Unit
The work of the Unit
The Public Affairs & Information Unit is one of the Units of the External Relations and Strategic Planning Section. Its function is to disseminate information to the Press and the general public concerning the role and the work of the ICTR. This function may be broken down into three principal tasks.
a. Providing support to the Press
Support to the Press is provided by the members of the Public Information Unit. They are available to journalists for any information or assistance. On entering the ICTR premises, journalists are met by the Security Service which can issue Press Passes valid for one day to journalists who are not yet accredited to the Tribunal.
Permanent accreditation of journalists and other members of the Press is the responsibility of the Public Information Unit. Any journalist may be accredited to the Tribunal simply by:
b. Organization of visits for journalists and members
of the public
In collaboration with the Protocol Unit, each year, the Tribunal receives large numbers of groups of visitors interested in the work of the ICTR. Such groups come from widely different backgrounds. They include academics; students, diplomats, military groups and tourists. For each visit, the Public Information Unit provides documentation and organizes a visit to the Tribunal premises. If possible, they will arrange attendance at a hearing before one of the Trial Chambers. Around three thousand people attend the hearings of the various Trial Chambers each year. Given the limited capacity of the Tribunal to receive visitors, it is advised that the organisers of groups should reserve such a visit at least several weeks ahead of the desired date.
c. Preparation of press releases and other public
The Public Information Unit distributes all public documents, issued by the Tribunal such as its Statute, Rules of Procedure and Evidence, Judgements, Motions and Decisions. The question whether or not a given document is public, is decided by the Chambers.
Of particular interest to journalists are the regular press releases, press briefings and the list of detainees which shows the current status of each case pending before the Tribunal. These documents are distributed automatically by fax or by e-mail to all those on our mailing list, including all accredited journalists. They are also available on our Website: www.ictr.org
The staff of the Public Information Unit is able to provide journalists with any information needed to carry out their work. They may be contacted at any time.
The offices of the Public Information Unit are located on the Mezzanine floor near the entrance to the Tribunalís premises in Arusha and are easily accessible.
The Unit also has a branch at Kigali (Rwanda), and two members of the Staff of the Unit are based there.
The members of the Unit are:
|Arusha: Telephone: +255 27 2505000 / 2565062 or +1 212 963 2850, email@example.com|
E-mail, Telephone Extension/ Mobile
|Bocar Sy||French/English||Chief, Public Affairs & Information Unit
+255 27 256 5012/ +255 784 400862
|Danford Mpumilwa||English/Swahili||Information Officerfirstname.lastname@example.org
+255 27 256 5091/ +255 754 282798
|Rani Dogra†||English†||Editorial Assistantemail@example.com
+255 27 256 5568†††††
|Speciosa Kitindi||English/Kiswahili||Administrative Clerk||
|Kigali: Telephone: +1 212 963 9906 or + 250 8 4265-70|
|Innocent Kamanzi††||Kinyarwanda/English/French||Information Officerfirstname.lastname@example.org
|Charles Kamuru||Kinyarwanda/English||Information Assistantemail@example.com
|Ruci Nailati||English||Administrative Assistantfirstname.lastname@example.org
III. The Spokesman of the ICTR
The Tribunal has a Spokesman, who is attached to the Immediate Office of the Registrar. His task, inter alia, is to explain and comment on all aspects of the work of the Tribunal including decisions of the Trial Chambers, the operations of the Tribunal, institutional and policy questions, as well as administration and management issues. He is the authorised official to speak to the media on behalf of the Tribunal through interviews, weekly briefings, or in response to press inquiries.
The Spokesman is also responsible for providing oral or written briefings on the Tribunal to representatives of Governments professional groups, NGOs, academic groups and the public.
|Name||Roland Kouassi Géro Amoussouga|
|Title||Senior Legal Adviser, Spokesperson of the Tribunal|
|+255 27 256 5335
+255 784 400 874
IV.†††††† Facilities available for the Media
1.†††††††† In the course of its work of sensitising and informing the Public, the Public Affairs & Information Unit publishes a Press Release each time there is an event which so requires. It also issues an update (ICTR Update) of cases which have reached a decisive point in the procedure before the Tribunal, as well as briefing notes as required. The Public Information Unit organises Press conferences as required, in particular when distinguished personalities visit the Tribunal. The Unit also arranges interviews with the Spokesman and other officials of the ICTR and organises regular briefings for journalists.
2.†††††††† The Tribunal has a fully equipped Press Center on the ground floor near to the entrance to its premises. It provides work stations for up to 20 journalists with individual lighting and international satellite telephone lines. They can also have access to Internet and may use photocopy and fax machines which are available in the Press Unit, on the Mezzanine floor. Use of telephones for international communications is subject to:
a.††Obtaining a confidential pin number. In exchange for a deposit of $500, any
journalist may have a pin code. After her/his stay at the Tribunal, the cost of international calls is deducted from the deposit and the remainder is returned to the journalist or,
b.†††Using the telephone with† prepaid phonecards containing a limited number of units or minutes. The phonecards are available from the Communications Section.
3.†††††††† The public gallery of each courtroom can accommodate approximately 100 people. Proceedings before a Trial Chamber are public with exception of deliberations or when the Chamber decides to sit in camera for special reasons. In such circumstances, the Tribunal may, in the interest of justice, order the Press and the public to be excluded from all or part of hearing.
4.†††††††† Three of the courtrooms of the Tribunal are equipped with video cameras and a control unit for the recording and distribution of the pictures. Journalists may follow the work of the Chambers through television monitors installed in the Press Center. Journalists who wish to record sound only should bring a cable with an XLR or a CINCH connector. To record the video images a BNC connector is required. Technical help (but not recording equipment) is available if needed.
V. Guidelines for Journalists
VI. Internet site of the Tribunal
The Tribunalís website is accessible at: www.ictr.org
It contains a wide variety of information of interest to journalists including all of the Tribunalís judgements, Fact Sheets on different aspects of the organisation of the Tribunal and its work, the biographies and photographs of the judges, the Prosecutor and the Registrar and a map of Rwanda. Press releases, an up-to-date chart giving the status of each of the ICTR detainees, are also available, as are the full texts of all of the basic legal instruments governing the Tribunal. Paper copies of all of these documents are available from the Public Affairs & Information Unit.
With regard to the work of the Tribunal, it is envisaged that all public judicial documents will, in due course, be available on the website. Access to the Public Judicial records Database is directly from the home page. This part of the site is still in the course of development but much useful material is already available there.
As the website expands, further information and documents will be included.
a. International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda
Arusha International Conference Center
P.O. Box 6016, Arusha, Tanzania
Tel: +255 27 2505000/2565062
or +1 212 963 2850
Fax: +255 27 2504000/2504373
or +1 212 963 2848/49
P.O. Box 749, Kigali, Rwanda
Tel: +250-84266 or +1 212 963 9906
Fax: +1 212 963 4001
The Hague, The Netherlands
2517 JW, The Hague
Tel.: +31 (0)70 512 5027
Fax: +31 (0)70 512 8280 or 8932
b.† International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia
Churchillplein 1, 2517 JW
The Hague, Netherlands
P.O. Box 13888, 2501 EW
Tel.: +31 70 416-53 43/56
Fax: +31 70 416-53 55/86 68
Head of Public Information
Portable: +31 065-1338-438
Spokesman (Registry and Chambers)
Telephone: +31 70 512 5066 / +31 653 57 80 06
Spokesperson for the Prosecutor
Tel: +31 (0)70 512 5475 / +31 620 499 213
c. United Nations Secretariat General
Spokesman for the Secretary-General
P.O. Box 4782
Grand Central Station
New York, NY 10017
d. Other useful addresses
Journalists who would like to contact colleagues of the local press may contact the secretariat of the Arusha Press Club.
Arusha Press Club
P.O. Box 212
Tel: +255 27 2506438
P.O. Box 212
Tel: +255 27 2506438